Design is about asking meta-rational questions
In poorly-understood domains, science requires a meta-rational approach to induction: in this situation, what method will give a meaningful answer? Can we apply statistics here at all? Why or why not? If we can, what specific method would give a meaningful answer, and what do we need to do to assure that it does? — David Chapman, Statistics and the replication crisis
I put it to you, reader, that any time we invoke a “design approach”, we are operating in a poorly understood domain and need to start with meta-rational questions.